Estratificación de la educación en Chile: “…es más probable que el peor estudiante de un buen colegio tenga mejores resultados que el mejor estudiante de un colegio malo en el sector particular subvencionado que en el sector municipal”

Columna de Alejandra Mizala, investigadora del Centro de Economía Aplicada, Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de Chile.

El sistema educacional en nuestro país ha generado una forma particular de estratificación.

Contrario a la visión simplificada, en la cual los colegios particulares subvencionados atraerían a los “mejores estudiantes” de los colegios municipales (léase de un nivel socioeconómico más alto) -para dejar a los más pobres en estos últimos establecimientos-, los datos muestran que el sistema particular subvencionado atiende a familias de un amplio espectro socioeconómico, si bien al interior de cada uno de los colegios el nivel socioeconómico de los estudiantes es muy homogéneo.

Esto implica que el sector particular subvencionado se ve inclusivo, porque hay todo tipo de colegios, es decir, desde colegios para la clase media acomodada hasta colegios para pobres.

Sin embargo, la unidad de análisis relevante no es el sector a nivel agregado, sino el colegio, elemento que mostramos en un trabajo conjunto con Florencia Torche, profesora de la Universidad de Nueva York, Estados Unidos [Mizala, A. y Torche, F. “Bringing the school back in: the stratification of educational achievement in the Chilean voucher system”. International Journal of Educational Development 32, 2012].

En particular, encontramos que los establecimientos particulares subvencionados estratifican por nivel socioeconómico y consecuentemente por resultados académicos; así hay colegios particulares subvencionados para niños acomodados y con buenos resultados escolares, y colegios para niños pobres con peores resultados académicos.

Lo anterior se grafica claramente en el hecho de que la variabilidad del indicador de estatus socioeconómico (medido por el ingreso del hogar y la educación de los padres) entre colegios es de un 24% en el sector municipal, en tanto que en el sector particular subvencionado llega a 47%.

Otra forma de graficar el hecho de que los colegios particulares subvencionados son más estratificados que los colegios municipales es la correlación que existe entre el colegio y el ingreso del hogar de sus alumnos, en el sector particular subvencionado esta correlación es el doble que la que existe en el sector municipal.

Un resultado que implica que basta conocer el colegio donde un niño estudia en el sector particular subvencionado para tener información muy acertada del ingreso de su familia.

Esta estratificación socioeconómica tiene un correlato directo con la estratificación de los resultados escolares, medidos por pruebas estandarizadas tipo SIMCE.

De hecho, la variabilidad de los puntajes de esta última prueba entre colegios particulares subvencionados es mucho mayor (27%) que la variabilidad que se obtiene entre colegios municipales (14%), un resultado que se repite en pruebas de diferentes materias (lenguaje y matemáticas), así como en distintos grados (cuarto y octavo básico).

Esto significa que existe una gran estratificación de puntajes en las pruebas SIMCE en el sector particular subvencionado.

Una forma de interpretar este resultado es la siguiente: es más probable que el peor estudiante de un buen colegio tenga mejores resultados que el mejor estudiante de un colegio malo en el sector particular subvencionado que en el sector municipal.

Esto significa que en el sector particular subvencionado el colegio también es una unidad de estratificación del desempeño escolar.

La pronunciada estratificación económica del sector particular subvencionado también se manifiesta en la elevada asociación que existe entre el nivel socioeconómico del colegio (que es el promedio del nivel socioeconómico de todos los alumnos) y los resultados en el Simce; esta asociación es más del doble en tamaño en los colegios particulares subvencionados que en los colegios municipales, aun después de aislar el impacto del nivel socioeconómico individual.

En otras palabras, el resultado educativo de un estudiante que asiste a un colegio particular subvencionado depende en gran medida de la composición socioeconómica del alumnado del colegio al que va, lo que significa que nuestras aulas no tienen la capacidad de interrumpir la reproducción cultural de la pobreza.

Estamos, por lo tanto, en un mundo donde los padres escogen colegios de acuerdo con su capacidad de pago y a los resultados promedio del establecimiento y los colegios, en vez de esforzarse por entregar buena educación, tienen incentivos para conseguir “buenos” alumnos con padres de mayor nivel socioeconómico, lo que impide que el sistema escolar promueva una educación de alta calidad para todos los niños y jóvenes.

Pero hay otras razones por las cuales el fuerte grado de homogeneidad interna de los colegios en Chile es preocupante.

En particular, esta realidad implica que los niños no aprenden a interactuar con otros niños provenientes de diferentes contextos sociales y culturales, lo que en sí mismo es malo para la democracia, más allá de lo que ocurra con los resultados escolares.

Idealmente la escuela debería ser una instancia de aprendizaje con los demás y acerca de los demás, de forma de educar en el respeto de los derechos del otro, formando individuos que sepan asumir sus responsabilidades ciudadanas.

Fuente: El Pulso.

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La Desconferencia: EdCamp Santiago
(Spanish Edition) [Kindle Edition]

Soy un maestro. Soy el más afortunado de todos quienes trabajan. A un médico se le permite traer una vida en un momento mágico. A mí se me permite que esa vida renazca día a a día con nuevas preguntas, ideas y amistades.

EdCamp Santiago es la desconferencia. Entrada gratuita, desarrollo profesional, por profesores, para profesores. Compartir en vez de competir, aprendizaje entre pares. Participantes comparten y intercambian sus mejores prácticas pedagógicas: “Best Practices”.

Product Details
File Size: 676 KB
Print Length: 107 pages
Simultaneous Device Usage: Unlimited
Sold by: Amazon Digital Services
Language: Spanish
ASIN: B008302H4G

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La Desconferencia: EdCamp Santiago (Volume 2) [Paperback]

Product Details
Paperback: 138 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace (May 14, 2012)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1477467734
ISBN-13: 978-1477467732

Product Dimensions: 9 x 6 x 0.3 inches
Shipping Weight: 9.3 ounces

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Amazon Author Page: Thomas Jerome Baker

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My Dear Friend: Welcome to Chile (Essays from a Teacher in Chile) [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: February 19, 2012
My Dear Friend, Welcome to Chile.

This book shares the personal sentiment of its author, an expat, after having lived the past ten years in Chile. He says:

“I live in Chile, the most beautiful country in the world.”

He continues: “As I say these words, I want you to know that I come from the United States of America, a country that stretches from sea to shining sea, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The USA is indeed a magnificent country, but it isn’t Chile…”

http://amzn.to/PNd5Wx

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EdCamp Santiago: The First Seven Days [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: March 4, 2012
Dedicated to all the educators, world-wide, who have participated in an EdCamp. Go forth, spread the word to the far corners of the Earth, something is happening. There’s something going on, a R(E)volution in teacher professional development. It’s called EdCamp….

A conference, that’s not a conference. An “unconference” is a better term. A new paradigm in teacher professional development, a new, creative, innovative way of staying up to date on what matters most to teachers. As I said, it’s a paradigm shift in teacher professional development. Let me repeat: Paradigm Shift.

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Being A Teacher in Chile [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: May 3, 2012
“How do you become a good teacher?” Those of you who know me from reading my writing already know my answer. The short answer, the simple answer, the easy to understand answer. It has two parts.
First, love what you do. Love being a teacher so much that if you had the power to be anything on Earth, pilot, astronaut, doctor, dentist, taxi-driver, singer, dancer, artist, musician, anything at all, you would still choose to be a teacher. Love being a teacher, that’s number one.

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Soy Un Maestro: I Am A Teacher [Paperback]

I am a teacher, and I teach in Chile. This year a new Teacher Career Law, defining the teaching profession in terms of increased prestige, attracting more applicants from higher performing students, an obligatory enabling exam, higher salaries, fewer hours teaching in the classroom, and higher responsibilities wil be passed, hopefully. This book totally supports the idea that a good law is needed, and now is the time to pass one, even if that law is not yet perfect. We Teachers have such a long way to go, and this is clearly a tremendous step in the right direction. To celebrate, all of the funds received for the sale of this book will go to support the EdCamp Santiago free conference for teachers in Chile. Thank you, in advance, for buying this book. May God Bless You…

Soy el más afortunado de todos quienes trabajan. A un médico se le permite traer una vida en un momento mágico. A mí se me permite que esa vida renazca día a a día con nuevas preguntas, ideas y amistades. Un arquitecto sabe que si construye con cuidado, su estructura puede permanecer por siglos. Un maestro sabe que si construye con amor y verdad, lo que construya durará para siempre.

Book Details
Paperback: 170 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace (July 3, 2012)
Language: English/Spanish
ISBN-10: 1478176520
ISBN-13: 978-1478176527

Soy Un Maestro: I Am A Teacher [Kindle Edition]

Soy Un Maestro: I Am A Teacher [Kindle Edition]

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La Desconferencia: EdCamp Santiago (Spanish Edition) [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: May 12, 2012
Soy un maestro. Soy el más afortunado de todos quienes trabajan. A un médico se le permite traer una vida en un momento mágico. A mí se me permite que esa vida renazca día a a día con nuevas preguntas, ideas y amistades.

EdCamp Santiago es la desconferencia. Entrada gratuita, desarrollo profesional, por profesores, para profesores. Compartir en vez de competir, aprendizaje entre pares. Participantes comparten y intercambian sus mejores prácticas pedagógicas: “Best Practices”.

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The Chilean National English Test [Kindle Edition]

Book Description

Publication Date: March 25, 2012

SIMCE Ingles 2010: The development of the national English test in Chile coincides with my story, which is woven autobiographically into the larger story, a test which apparently resulted in only 11% of students able to achieve a passing score.

This book will make you laugh, it will make you cry, it will reveal secrets to you that you thought you already knew about tests, test-making, and test-reporting.

More importantly, if you are a teacher, you leave the reading of this book with a renewed sense of confidence in who you are, and what you do…

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Celtic Warrior Queen Boudicca

Statue of Queen Boudicca on the Thames River in London

What is deemed as “history” is often determined by those who survived to write it. In other words, history is written by the victors. The Roman historian, Tacitus, left us an account of the Roman victory over Queen Boudicca in the year A.D. 60-61.

Prasutagus, the wealthy King of the Iceni tribe, had died. Upon his death, his wife, Queen Boudicca, became the new ruler of the Iceni tribe. She headed a rebellion against the occupying Romans in Britain in A.D. 60 in which more than seventy thousand Romans were killed. The rebellion was eventually crushed and Boudicca committed suicide. So, this is a neat, sweet his-story with a happy ending, if you were on the Roman side, that is.

Yet undeniably, every community has a memory of itself. Not a history, nor an archive, nor an authoritative record, but a living memory, an awareness of a collective identity woven of a thousand stories.

Now, with the help of the Roman historian Tacitus, I shall tell you Queen Boudicca’s story, her-story……

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Boudicca: Her Story
[Kindle Edition]

What is deemed as “his-story” is often determined by those who survived to write it. In other words, history is written by the victors. The Roman historian, Tacitus, left us an account of the Roman victory over Queen Boudicca in the year A.D. 60-61.

Yet undeniably, every community has a memory of itself. Not a history, nor an archive, nor an authoritative record, but a living memory, an awareness of a collective identity woven of a thousand stories.

Now, with the help of the Roman historian Tacitus, I shall tell you Queen Boudicca’s story, her-story……

Boudicca: Her Story [Kindle Edition]

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Pecha Kucha & ELT

I saw my first Pecha Kucha over three years ago. It was when I was working at Universidad Andrés Bello at Campus Casona in Santiago with the students in the English Pedagogy program. I admit I’ve been fascinated by “Pecha Kucha” ever since that first time. I remember being very impressed by the performance I watched. There were a number of reasons for this. For now, let me share with you why I find Pecha Kucha to be so impressive and fascinating as a presentation technique.
Firstly, when we speak of our first time doing something enjoyable, it’s always a good feeling. We like what we like, we know what we like, and because of that, we return often, to what we like.

As you can tell by now, I like Pecha Kucha.

Secondly, its principles are easy to understand and apply. It’s fast, it’s efficient, it’s effective, it’s collaborative, it’s visual, it’s easy to prepare, it’s fun. However, it does require practice, lots of it, to do this really well. Practice, oh what a sweet word in the ears of any EFL teacher. Students practicing what they are going to say, again and again, going over their own words, to speak about images they themselves have selected. Volumes of practice, huge quantities of practice, helping the students to achieve the eventual automaticity that is the hallmark of mastery.

Having said that, of all the principles of the Pecha Kucha, the most important principle is this: images are powerful.

Images convey meaning and emotions. In fact, the whole range of the human experience can be conveyed by images. For example, think of the images left on the walls of caves by cave men. No one needs a cave man to verbalize what you are seeing. You feel it – through your eyes – to your brain – to your emotions. It’s visual storytelling. That’s what the Pecha Kucha is, visual literacy in its purest form…

Pecha Kucha & ELT
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The International Baccalaureate [Kindle Edition]

The International Baccalaureate [Paperback]

The global search for high-quality education, embedded in high-performing education systems, has taken on mythical proportions, almost resembling the alchemists’ quest to turn common metals into gold.

It is my hope that the present day search for global education, equitable and providing equality of opportunity for all, shall not cease until the “gold” we seek, has been found.

I therefore dedicate this book to all the educators, researchers, parents and students the world over, who strive to achieve this elusive goal,high-quality education for all the citizens of the world.

In this endeavour, it is my belief that the International Baccalaureate merits a closer look, based on their more than 40 year history of delivering consistently excellent results.

I add that all of the reflections and views in this book are mine alone, unless otherwise noted, and can not be attributed to my employer or any other organization I am affiliated with, past or present. For any errors or oversights, I bear the complete responsibility.

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Amazon Author Page:

Thomas Jerome Baker

Thomas Baker is the Past-President of TESOL Chile (2010-2011). He is the Head of the English Department at Colegio Internacional SEK in Santiago, Chile.

He is the Co-Founder and Co-Organiser of EdCamp Santiago, free, participant-driven, democratic, conversation based professional development for teachers, by teachers. EdCamp Santiago 2012 was held at Universidad Mayor in Santiago.

Edcamp Santiago 2013 is currently looking for volunteers to help organize the annual event. If you are interested, contact Edcamp Santiago! Your help will make all the difference!

Email: edcampstgo@gmail.com
Facebook: Edcamp Santiago
!Like our page on Facebook please!
Read our Blog!
Edcamp Santiago on LinkedIn
Edcamp Santiago on Slideshare
Twitter: @EdcampSantiago

Es una red que reúne a Profesionales de la Educación preocupados por desarrollar y fortalecer las capacidades de sus comunidades educativas, a través de la creatividad, la innovación y el emprendimiento.

Thomas was recently selected for membership in the Comunidad de Innovación Escolar of the Foundation Telefónica and Foundation Educación 2020. It is a network that brings together education professionals concerned with developing and strengthening the capacities of their educational communities through creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship.

Thomas is also a past member (2011-2012) of the Advisory Board for the International Higher Education Teaching and Learning Association (HETL), where he also serves as a reviewer and as the HETL Ambassador for Chile.

Thomas enjoys writing about a wide variety of topics. Thus far, he has written the following genres: romance, historical fiction, autobiographical, sports history/biography, and English Language Teaching. He has published a total of forty four (44) books overall.

The source and inspiration for his writing comes from his family, his wife Gabriela, and his son, Thomas Jerome Baker, Jr.

http://www.amazon.com/Thomas-Jerome-Baker/e/B007G9HJFM

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About profesorbaker

Thomas Baker is the Past-President of TESOL Chile (2010-2011). He enjoys writing about a wide variety of topics. The source and inspiration for his writing comes from his family.
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